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Water Treatment

All life on earth depends on water.

70% of the earth is covered with water, but unfortunately, only less than 1% is usable.

Growing human population and economic development are putting great pressure on water resources around the world.

While many of us are taking the availability of clean water for granted, about 1 billion people in the poorer countries are fighting hard to have access to basic drinking water. Climate change is causing floods in some areas and droughts in others. This adds on to the urgency of dealing with the water crisis we are all facing.

Water Facts

  • 1 child dies from a waterborne disease every 2 minutes.
  • Over 660 million people worldwide do not have safe and clean water.
  • Two-thirds of the world population might face water shortages by 2025.
  • Every day, women and children in different parts of the world spend 200 million hours collecting water.

Water Treatment Systems

Water treatment is the process of cleaning water to make it acceptable for human consumption or for industrial use. With appropriate systems in place, grey or black water can be treated to remove particles and pollutants to make it fit for specific uses. Treated water may be used for drinking, industrial purpose or agriculture. Some industries might even treat water to make it safe enough to be discharged into the environment.

Types of Water to Treat

Black water is wastewater from toilets which contains urine and feces. Instead of discharging wastewater into municipal sewers, treated black water can be put to use again, and thus helps to reduce cost of water usage for building owners. Depending on the purity level, treated black water can be recycled for non-potable uses like toilet flushing and watering of plants.

In industrial settings, black water can also refer to highly contaminated and toxic industrial discharges. It is important for enterprises to have procedures in place to treat industrial black water, for reducing environmental pollution.

Type of Water

Grey water is used water coming from sinks, showers, washing machines, etc. It does not include feces and urine from the toilets and is therefore easier to treat than black water. Grey water can also be present as a result of industrial activity. With water treatment system in place, recycled grey water can be used for irrigation, flushing of toilets, and general washing. It can even be further treated to become drinkable water.

In countries like Singapore, stringent guidelines from the government are in place to determine the usage and quality of recycled grey water. Absence of these can have a serious effect on public health.

See for Singapore PUB’s guidelines for treated water quality.

Water Treatment Methods

Water purification systems adopt various methods of water treatment, depending on the water to be treated and end-users’ requirements.

Membrane Filtration

Microfiltration (MF) a physical filtration process where contaminated water is passed through membranes to separate protozoa and small suspended solids from the fluid.

Ultrafiltration (UF) also works on the principle of physical separation like microfiltration. The key difference between the two is in the pore size of the membranes. Microfiltration membranes are approximately 1 micrometer whereas for ultrafiltration the size is about 0.25 micrometer.

Nanofiltration (NF) is a high pressure system, unlike MF and UF which are low pressure systems. Pore sizes for NF are smaller than MF and UF. It is often used for water softening, and removal of natural and organic matters such as micro pollutants and pathogens.

Reverse Osmosis (RO) system uses non-porous membranes that are semipermeable. They are effective in removing dissolved matter. RO is a technique that is commonly applied in the production of drinking water and ultra-pure water.

Reverse Osmosis

Membrane Bioreactor (MBR)

MBR is a technology which combines biological processes (a suspended growth bioreactor) and membrane separation (typically microfiltration or ultrafiltration), to achieve very high effluent quality. It is widely used today for municipal water and wastewater treatment.

With technological advancement, cost of operating an MBR has reduced significantly as compared to earlier years, thus making it a popular method for water treatment.

Besides producing high quality effluent, another advantage is its small footprint, thus making it amenable to automation and ease of expansion.

Giantech Water Solutions

At GIANTECH, we have strong partnerships with experts in the water industry to solve the most challenging water issues and meet the world’s diverse water needs.

Our systems are built revolving such features: scalable, ease of maintenance and reduced energy consumption. They are specially designed to be highly integrated or containerized, and can be transported with ease to customers’ premises without much logistical hassle.

Water Treatment Solution

Our experiences include the provision of water treatment solutions to the marine and offshore industry, providing black and grey water treatment systems onboard seagoing ships and to oil rigs.

Bioreactor for Ship and Offshore Installations

Bioreactors for Ship and Offshore Installations

[Bioreactors for Ship and Offshore Installations]

Contact us here: to find out more.